Uluru is composed mainly of coarse-grained Arkose, a type of sandstone that is characterized by an abundance of feldspar, and some conglomerate. Composition is 50% feldspar, 25-35% quartz and rock fragments, 25%.
Ayers Rock or The Rock as it is called this mountain has a relatively equal age Kata Tjuta but differ in terms of rock type. Originally this was a simple mountain pile of sand but in time formed a wonder of the world that amazes us all. Archaeological discoveries from east to west revealed that people lived here 10,000 years ago and Europeans arrived in the Western Australian desert in 1870. Uluru and Kata Tjuta were discovered two years later the Europeans arrived here.
From Historically it was discovered that around the rocks have ever lived approximately 46 species of mammals of which are also found today only 21. It is intended that areas with specific animal popularize Australian animals like Malleefowl, Brushtail possum, rufous Hare-wallaby or Mala, Bilby, Bettongs burrows and Black-flanked Rock-wallaby. Bats are present mostly in the park, here there are more than 7 species of bats that live in caves and crevices of Uluru and Kata Tjuta. Also there are plenty of live reptiles, over 73 species and that due to favorable climate and better living conditions they were near the cliff.
Flora of Ayers Rock can be ranked as follows: Punu - trees, Puti - shrubs, Tjulpun-tjulpunpa - flowers and Ukiri - herbs. Mulga and Centralian Bloodwood trees that are used to made tools such as spearheads, boomerangs and bowls. Centralian Bloodwood sap of well is used as a medicine for coughs and colds.
The climate in this region is slightly different from us because the one on them when it is winter in our summer and vice versa. In the months from December to January is in full summer they where average temperatures are 37 degrees, while winter (June-July) is recorded 4 degrees. Locals divided the year into five seasons: Wanitjunkupai (April-May) - cooler weather, Wari (June-July) - winter brings frost morning Piriyakutu (August-September-October)
Tourism infrastructure development was started in 1950 but it brought a disadvantage this monument. In 1975 just north of the park was built a resort of 104 square kilometers, 15 kilometers from Uluru, where after a airport constuit the region known as the Yulara. Northern Territory government interest because it Yulara resort was sold in 1992 and today is called Ayers Rock Resort. Since this park is a national heritage after 2000 the number of visitors has grown considerably with over 400,000 visitors per year.